Endogenous Characteristics. Originate from characteristics of the individual.
Examples in Gifted Students:
Exogenous Characteristics. Emerge as byproducts of the interaction of characteristics of the child with the environment
Example in Gifted Students:Desire for academic engagement within a school environment not accepting of students who are very serious about learning
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)
“Diagnostic criteria for mental disorders are essentially descriptions of symptoms that fall into one of four categories. In major depressive disorder for example, affective or mood symptoms include depressed mood and feelings of worthlessness or guilt. Behavioral symptoms include social withdrawal and agitation. Cognitive symptoms, or problems in thinking include difficulty with concentration or making decisions. Finally, somatic or physical symptoms include insomnia or hypersomnia (sleeping too much)”.
“Specifiers associated with the mood disorders are listed below:Mild: A few symptoms, if any, are present beyond what is needed to make a diagnosis, and a person can function normally although with extra effort.Moderate: The severity of symptoms is between mild and severe. For a manic episode, a person's activity is increased or judgment is impaired. Severe Without Psychotic Features: Most symptoms are present and a person clearly has little or no ability to function. For a manic or mixed episode, a person needs to be supervised to protect him/her from harm to self or others”.
“There is evidence to show that the gifted are influenced by their peers’, parents’ and teachers’ feelings about their abilities. If they are seen as mental freaks, unhealthy personalities, or eccentric simply because they are brainy or creative, many of them will avoid the stigma through conformity. Some would rather underachieve and be popular than achieve honor status and receive ostracism”. Tannenbaum 1984, p. 466.
Common Coping Methods of Gifted Students Underachieving Identify with Non-intellectual Group Downplay Abilities Deny Giftedness Intellectualize Reactions to Perceived Social Difficulty Manage Information Sit Quietly Suicidal Behavior
Treat gifted children as children first.Establish communication among parents, teachers, and counselors.Teach gifted children social skills, ways to manage stress, and to enjoy nonacademic activities.Try to understand the social milieu of school.Learn about individual child’s personality, social goals, and needs.Find counseling for gifted students and their families.Create opportunities for gifted children to interact.Model adaptive behaviors.
This article is provided as a service of the Davidson Institute for Talent Development, a 501(c)3 nonprofit dedicated to supporting profoundly gifted young people under 19. To learn more about the Davidson Institute's programs, please visit www.DavidsonGifted.org.
The appearance of any information in the Davidson Institute's Database does not imply an endorsement by, or any affiliation with, the Davidson Institute. All information presented is for informational purposes only and is solely the opinion of and the responsibility of the author. Although reasonable effort is made to present accurate information, the Davidson Institute makes no guarantees of any kind, including as to accuracy or completeness. Use of such information is at the sole risk of the reader.