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Organizations: National

Florida Community College at Jacksonville - Dual Enrollment (Jacksonville, FL)

FCCJ offers Dual Enrollment as just one of their Pre-College Programs. Students can take academic college-level courses and/or career and technical courses. Depending on educational and career goals, students can earn college credits that are transferable to any public college or university within the state of Florida and to most other public and private schools. The courses are offered at all College campuses and centers and in some high schools.

Organizations: State

Special Programs for Academic Nurturing (SPAN), (Indianapolis, IN)

This program gives high school students the opportunity to take college courses for high school and college credit. SPAN is a division of the Honors Program at Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). There are two levels of entry into SPAN: the Running Start Program (for freshman and sophomores) and the Upperclass Program (for juniors and seniors). SPAN students pay regular IUPUI tuition costs.

Wisconsin's Youth Options Program

This program allows public high school juniors and seniors who meet certain requirements to take postsecondary courses at a UW institution, a Wisconsin technical college, one of the state's participating private nonprofit institutions of higher education, or tribally-controlled colleges. Approved courses count toward high school graduation and college credit.

Schools & Programs: College Affiliated

Academic Challenge Program (Multiple Locations, DE)

The Academic Challenge Program is a college-school partnership between the nine Sussex County School Districts and the Owens Campus of Delaware Tech. The students range from eighth graders to high school seniors, and the five-year program offers the standard high school curriculum in mathematics and English at an accelerated pace allowing for college course work during the junior and senior years. The college courses are provided at the Owens Campus through the Delaware Tech/University of Delaware Parallel Program. It is possible to earn 12 college credits in English and 15 college credits in mathematics.

Adelphi University (Garden City, NY) - Early Admission

Adelphi offers two early admission plans to qualified students who want to enter college prior to graduating from high school: either concurrent enrollment or by enrolling directly as full-time undergraduate students. Advanced Placement options are also available.

Advanced Academy at University of West Georgia (Carrollton, GA)

The Advanced Academy at the University of Georgia is a program at the State University of West Georgia that provides a bridge for an early transition to college for gifted students. Students can combine the last two years of high school with the first two years of college, and earn concurrent credit. The curriculum can be chosen from any academic area, and guidance counselors assist students in their choices. Academy students live in a separate professionally staffed hall with rules that are consistent with the needs of younger students. The program provides many activities, such as after-class programs and seminars, fine arts activities, and intramurals. The web site provides information about the application process, admittance requirements, and fees.

Agnes Scott College (Decatur, GA) - Dual Enrollment

Students can start earning their college credits with the Agnes Scott joint enrollment program. Although this is a women's college, the program is open to qualified, female and male high school seniors.

Alaska Pacific University Early Honors (Dual Enrollment) - (Anchorage, AK)

The Early Honors Program is both an alternative to the senior year in high school and a challenging springboard into college. During both semesters, Early Honors students enroll in a common university-level curriculum designed with the intent to also satisfy senior level high school requirements. Depending on the student's remaining requirements, they will have the opportunity to select courses from the Alaska Pacific schedule relevant to their academic interests.

Allegany College of Maryland: Bedford County Campus - Early College Program (Somerset, PA)

This program allows high school students the opportunity to earn college credit while obtaining their high school diplomas. Students 16 and over receive a 50 percent discount on tuition.

Arkansas State University, Early Entrance/Dual Enrollment (Jonesboro, AR)

Students may enroll in university courses prior to graduation when the combined enrollments (high school and college) during any one semester do not exceed normal academic load. Early entrance for high schools students who have not graduated is also available.

Auburn University Montgomery - Dual Enrollment (Montgomery, AL)

Auburn University Montgomery offers two programs for high school seniors who qualify: Early Admissions and Dual Enrollment. This enables students to earn college credit while still in high school, become acquainted with a collegiate environment and use AUM's library and computer resources.

Augusta State University, Dual Enrollment (Augusta, GA)

Students with SAT scores of at least 530, or ACT English score of 23 who have not completed the final unit of high school English and/or social studies, may be permitted to fulfill these high school requirements with the appropriate college courses taken through the joint enrollment program.

Baylor University, Dual Enrollment (Waco, TX)

Area high school students who meet the requirements for Advanced Studies may enroll for one or two courses during their final year of high school. Students who enroll in 9 hours and make a "B" in each course may be considered for Early Admission to the freshman class and a degree program without graduation from high school and with parental approval if the student is under 18.

Beloit College, Dual Enrollment (Beloit, WI)

Students enrolled in courses that earn credit for both high school requirements and college credits may be able to transfer that credit to Beloit College (BC). BC also accepts home-schooled students for enrollment.

Bluefield State College - Special (Non-Matriculating) Student program (Bluefield, WV)

Bluefield State College is a public college located in Bluefield, West Virginia and offers high school students the opportunity to take courses as a special or nonmatriculated student, which is a student who wants to take baccalaureate courses but does not intend to pursue a bachelor’s degree yet.

Broward Community College - Dual Enrollment (Fort Lauderdale, FL)

Dual Enrollment is part of BCC's accelerated learning department. Most classes are taught by college professors committed to academic excellence and rigorous standards. To be eligible for the program, students must have an unweighted cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or better. Courses are offered at local high schools as well as BCC's campus locations.

Center for Distance and Independent Study (CDIS) - University of Missouri (Columbia, MO)

Find gifted online courses for Middle and High School. Courses include both faculty- and computer-evaluated lessons. The University of Missouri-Columbia High School provides an accredited diploma program for students with a need for an alternative to traditional high school. There is also a Dual Enrollment program allowing qualified high school students to enroll in university-level courses offered through CDIS while paying only 50 percent of the normal University of Missouri educational fees.

Central Florida Community College - Dual Enrollment (Ocala, FL)

Qualified high school students may accelerate their college education through dual enrollment courses offered at either the high school site or a Central Florida Community College (CFCC) campus location. Dual enrollment courses are available to eligible students at no cost.

Early College Program - Weber State University (Ogden, UT)

The Early College program at Weber State University (WSU) allows high school students early enrollment in college courses. Students may remain a member of their high school class, while receiving college credit applicable to colleges and universities across the country. Students work with guidance counselors from both WSU and their high school, and their parents to determine a course of study. Detailed information about the program can be obtained by contacting the Early College program directly through the address on the website. GPA of 3.0 and ACT of 22 recommended.

Elgin Community College - Early enrollment (Elgin, IL)

Located in Elgin, Illinois, the Elgin Community College allows high school students ages 16 and up to enroll in six credit hours/semester with permission from their high school principal or guidance counselor. Students under 16 also may enroll if they are in a gifted or accelerated program and have permission from their school officials and the Associate Dean. The college also offers dual enrollment programs and accelerated college enrollment.

Emory University - Joint Enrollment (Atlanta, GA)

High school juniors in the Atlanta area can take college courses at Emory while enrolled in high school. Students usually have completed the junior year in their secondary school and must follow the same admission procedures as candidates for regular college admission.

Emory Universtiy (Atlanta, GA)

Emory College, a four-year undergraduate division of Emory University, offers a joint enrollment program. This is an application option for high school juniors. This admission plan serves students in the Atlanta area who wish to take college courses at Emory while jointly enrolled in high school. These students usually have completed the junior year in their secondary school and must follow the same admission procedures as candidates for regular admission.

Friends University (Wichita, KS)

Friends University provides an education in the context of a Judeo-Christian perspective. Students are admitted based on their potential for achieving academic success. Early admission is open to high school seniors who are currently enrolled in high school. Concurrent enrollment is available to junior or senior high school students.

Gifted & Talented Education (GATE), The Honors College at Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI)

The various Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) programs offered through Michigan State University (MSU) are dedicated to promoting differentiated educational programs for students in grades 7-12. Mathematics Science and Technology (MST) is a two-week residential program for academically talented students. CHAMP is a regional program for students highly gifted in mathematics. ISHALL is an accelerated, intensive two-year course in literature and language designed to meet the curricular goals and merit standards of high school English, grades 7-10, in two years. Plus, there is also a dual enrollment program, a Michigan-Shiga Exchange program, a CSI Forensic Science program and several others listed on the website.

Jacksonville State University - Dual Enrollment (Jacksonville, AL)

Through the Accelerated Pre-College Program Admissions/Dual Enrollment programs, a student may be admitted as an accelerated high school student. In order to accommodate high school students with exceptional ability, Jacksonville State University also considers them on an individual basis for early admission.

Joint Enrollment Program for High School Students at Georgia Tech (Savannah, GA)

Georgia Tech offers a plan of concurrent enrollment to high school students. Students are jointly enrolled at their high school and Tech as special undergraduate students under an agreement that enables the student to be awarded their high school diploma, as well as receive college credit. Students admitted into the program may register for a maximum of 8 semester hours in courses that are NOT available at the high school level. The Joint Enrollment program is an opportunity to enrich, but not replace, the high school experience for students who have completed the highest level of coursework available in high school. High school students that wish to enter Tech full-time will be considered through the early admission program.

Judson College - Dual Enrollment/AP (Marion, AL)

Students may attend class at Judson College and receive college credit for courses that are also applicable to their high school. A student who begins college studies after the junior year of high school may be admitted under early admission. Students seeking early admission should possess unusual academic promise. Eleventh graders may be admitted to the program in exceptional cases.

Kansas Academy of Mathematics and Sciences (KAMS) - Ft. Hays State University (Hays, KS)

Established by legislative action in 2006, the Kansas Academy of Mathematics and Science (KAMS) plans to be the state’s premier academic high school program for the best and brightest high school students. Based in part after successful programs in Missouri and Texas, KAMS is a unique residential learning experience that provides exceptional high school juniors and seniors a potent blend of college-level instruction by Ph.D. faculty; a high school diploma and 68 hours of college credit; and, the option to receive an associate’s degree upon graduation.

Lake-Sumter Community College (Clermont, Leesburg & Sumterville, FL)

This community college's dual enrollment program allows qualifying public, home and private school students to obtain college credits while completing high school.

Lamar University - Early Access Program (LEAP) (Beaumont, TX)

The Lamar Early Access Program (LEAP) is a cooperative program between Lamar and participating high schools which allows high school seniors to take university courses in their high schools, taught by their high school teachers. Students enrolled in the program may receive both high school and college credit, concurrently, upon satisfactory completion of the course. The courses are regular offerings of the university, taught by carefully selected high school teachers who hold a master's degree in their teaching field.

Lansing Community College Dual Enrollment Program (Lansing, MI)

Michigan high school juniors and seniors earn dual credit at Lansing Community College in Michigan through this program. Dual enrollment provides students with enrichment and depth in subjects of their interest that they may not be able to find in their regular high school curriculum.

Matteo Ricci College (MRC) - Early College (Seattle, WA)

Matteo Ricci College (MRC) located at Seattle University (SU) in Washington, integrates high school and university-level curriculum, allowing students to complete high school and college in six or seven years, rather than the traditional eight years. The curriculum is designed jointly by the student's high school and MRC/SU and is a traditional interdisciplinary curriculum. Upon completion of the program, students receive a Bachelor of Arts in Humanities. This program is open to local high schools students.

Michigan State University (MSU) - Dual Enrollment (East Lansing, MI)

Michigan State University (MSU) offers Dual Enrollment for students in grades 11 and 12 through Gifted and Talented Education (GATE). Students can enroll in at least one MSU course while taking at least one high school course in the Dual Enrollment Program. This differentiated curriculum offers challenges and learning opportunities that meet the needs of students at various skill levels. Tuition costs are covered by the student's high school district, and the student is only responsible for the cost of transportation, books and parking.

New Mexico Highlands University, Dual Enrollment/Early Admission (Las Vegas, NM)

The Dual Credit Program allows high school students to enroll in college courses in postsecondary institutions (universities, colleges, and community colleges) prior to high school graduation, giving them enrichment opportunities and first-hand experiences with the requirements of college-level work. Dual credit students receive both high school and college credit simultaneously. Tuition and standard fees are waived by NMHU for students participating in this program.

North Florida Community College - Dual Enrollment Program (Madison, FL)

The Dual Enrollment Program is just one of the Special Learning Oppportunities at NFCC. Through reciprocal agreements with area high schools academically qualified high school students may be admitted to certain NFCC courses to gain college, as well as high school, credit. There is no charge for these classes and many high school students shorten the time required to complete the Associate in Arts degree.

Oklahoma City Community College - Concurrent Enrollment (Oklahoma City, OK)

If you are a high school junior or senior who is "on track" with your graduation requirements and ready for the challenge of a college classroom - concurrent enrollment is for you. You can get a jump start on your college education by earning early college credit. These credits transfer to other colleges and universities through the concurrent enrollment program.

Palo Alto College Dual Credit Program (San Antonio, Texas)

Located in San Antonio, Texas, the Palo Alto College Dual Credit Program allows eligible high school students to earn college credit for certain high school courses in which they are currently enrolled while completing their high school requirements. In order for students to participate in this Alamo Colleges' program, the high schools must be approved to offer Dual Credit courses.

Program for the Exceptionally Gifted (PEG) - Mary Baldwin College (Staunton, VA)

Located in Stauton, Virginia on the campus of Mary Baldwin College, this unique all-girl school offers an opportunity for bright and accomplished young women to complete college during their high school years while living in a fully supervised residence hall. Prospective students can apply from their eighth-grade year and on. Students are accepted based on giftedness, consistent academic achievement and personal maturity.

Running Start - University of Hawaii (HI)

Running Start is a statewide program that provides an opportunity for academically qualified juniors and seniors to enroll in college classes through the University of Hawai‘i system as part of their high school coursework. This unique partnership between the Department of Education and the University of Hawai‘i System allows public high school students to attend college classes during the fall, spring, and summer while earning both high school and college credits.

South Florida Community College - Dual Enrollment (Lake Placid, Bowling Green, Arcadia & Avon Park, FL)

Many courses have been approved by the state of Florida for high school dual enrollment. Each public high school has been assigned a South Florida Community College (SFCC) counselor who visits the school regularly. Students must meet with a SFCC counselor to develop a fast track that meets the student's future educational or employment goals. Courses are available at various high schools, SFCC campuses and online.

State University New York at Buffalo (SUNY) - Gifted Math Program (Buffalo, NY)

The Gifted Math Program is an enrichment program for students in grades 7-12 at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Students commute to the university twice weekly to study an enriched and accelerated program of mathematics in grades 7 – 10, and university level courses in discrete mathematics and calculus in grades 11 and 12. They can accumulate a total of 22 semester hours of university credit for successful participation.

Syracuse University Project Advance (SUPA) (Syracuse, NY)

Beginning in 1972, gifted high school seniors have had the opportunity to enroll in Syracuse University's introductory courses taught by adjunct faculty from the University. These courses are taught at the student's own high school during the regular school day. The curriculum includes science, language arts, and mathematics courses, and allows students to earn concurrent credits. The program currently covers a five state area including New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maine, and Michigan.

Tennessee Tech University (TTU) - Dual/Joint Enrollment or Early Admission (Cookeville, TN)

This University offers high school students a dual enrollment program after completing their junior year without graduating from high school. Students usually enter in the summer term.

Texas Academy of Leadership in the Humanities - Lamar University (Beaumont, TX)

The Texas Academy of Leadership in the Humanities (TALH) is a public coeducational residential high school located in Beaumont, Texas. Academy students fulfill their junior and senior high school requirements by taking university classes and earning college credit. TALH is known as a highly selective high school for gifted and talented students eager for an enriched intellectual program enhanced by the disciplines of the humanities.

The High School at Moorpark College (Moorpark, CA)

Located near Los Angeles, this college offers a unique opportunity for high school juniors and seniors to have a non-traditional experience by enrolling in college level courses while taking high school required classes.

The Scholars Academy (Conway, SC)

Located on the campus of Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, the Scholars Academy welcomes all interested rising ninth graders to apply for admission into its program. Once enrolled, Scholars Academy students take a combination of rigorous high school and college courses. During the first two years, the students focus on completing most of the requirements for high school graduation, taking several college and Advanced Placement courses. During their junior and senior years, the students take a combination of college and Advanced Placement courses, preparing them for their chosen field of study after high school graduation. The Scholars Academy is a part of Horry County Public Schools.

UConn Early College Experience (ECE) (CT)

This is a concurrent enrollment program that allows motivated high school students to take UConn courses at their high schools for both high school and college credit. Every course taken through UConn ECE is equivalent to the same course at the University of Connecticut. Students benefit by taking college courses in a warm setting that is both familiar and conducive to learning.

University of Alabama - Early College/Dual Enrollment (Tuscaloosa, AL)

Certain high-school students are allowed to enroll in college-level courses in order to earn credits that apply to both undergraduate degrees and high-school diplomas. Students who have exceptionally high grades and high ACT or SAT scores and who have strong endorsements from their high schools and parents may also be considered for admission without completing the senior year of high school.

University of Alabama at Birmingham - Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit (Birmingham, AL)

Early Admission, Concurrent Enrollment and Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit are all offered to students who apply for early admission when the intention is to leave high school after completing the junior year and begin full-time study as a degree student at UAB.

University of Alabama in Huntsville - Dual Credit Program (Huntsville, AL)

High school juniors and seniors who meet the UAH regular admission requirements may, with the approval of their school officials, take classes at UAH and receive credit for courses completed successfully at both the high school and at UAH.

University of Alaska Fairbanks - Dual Enrollment (Fairbanks, AK)

UAF's High School Options include their "AHEAD Program", Advanced Placement Credits and Secondary Enrollment. Qualified high school students can be admitted to UAF and simultaneously enroll for credit in high school and university courses.

University of Alaska Southeast - Dual Enrollment (Juneau, AK)

The UAS dual enrollment program was created for school district students who seek the challenge of college instruction. Qualified high school students may enroll in one or two UAS courses per semester while still in high school.

University of Florida Dual Enrollment (Gainesville, FL)

In the Center for Precollegiate Education and Training, high school students are provided the opportunity to enroll in classes at the University of Florida. They will receive both high school and college credit.

University of Minnesota, Dual Enrollment/ Post Secondary Education Options Program (PSEOA) - (Duluth, MN)

The Post Secondary Enrollment Options Act (PSEOA) allows eligible juniors and seniors in Minnesota schools to register for postsecondary course work with tuition, books, and some fees paid by the Minnesota Department of Education. The PSEO Program, a division of UMD Continuing Education Credit and Noncredit Programs, helps high school students in their transition to University life.

University of Missouri Center for Distance & Independent Study's MU High School (Columbia, MO)

The mission of the University of Missouri High School is to provide distance learning courses, through a variety of delivery methods, that will complement traditional high school curricula and provide an accredited diploma program for independent learners of all ages seeking an alternative to traditional high school attendance.

University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) - Early Studies Program (Las Vegas, NV)

This program provides highly-motivated high school students an opportunity to get a head start on their college education by enrolling in UNLV courses before high school graduation. Early Studies Students also have the opportunity to earn dual credit (university and high school credit) with the approval of their high school counselor. In addition, Early Studies Students receive full access to elite Academic Success Center (ASC) resources, such as tutoring, advising and academic success coaching.

Valencia Community College: Dual enrollment (Orlando, FL)

This program allows high school juniors or seniors to take college courses while still in high school. Students can even complete a college degree while simultaneously earning a high school diploma. Dual enrolled students pay no tuition or fees because they are exempt from all registration, application, matriculation or lab fees. Public school students receive books and instructional materials free of charge. However, students enrolled in home school programs or private secondary schools are responsible for purchasing their own textbooks.

Virginia's Community College - Dual Enrollment/Dual Credit (Multiple Locations, VA)

The Virginia Community College system and a collaboration of public high schools offer dual enrollment and dual credit programs. The dual enrollment program allows students to take college courses for free from their high school campus via various technologies and classroom instructions. In addtition, there is also "dual enrollement" for high school students who want to participate in college courses during the summer or the school year.

West Virginia University ACCESS program (Morgantown, WV)

Advanced high school students may enroll in West Virginia University (WVU) courses through the ACCESS program. Credit for courses will be recorded on an official WVU transcript. This college credit applies to a student's academic progress at WVU or may be transferred to other institutions of higher education. Whether these credits count toward high school graduation is a decision of the Board of Education of the county in which the student resides.

Wichita State University (Wichita, KS)

This public university in Kansas has allowed high school students to take a limited number of credits in conjunction with their high school studies but will not grant full admission without a high school diploma or GED.

Schools & Programs: Independent

Baywood Learning Center (Oakland, CA)

The mission of this organization is to provide an exceptional learning environment where gifted students may have an education that provides unlimited growth in their areas of interest while building strategies needed for lifelong learning and well-being.

St. John's College (Annapolis, MD/Santa Fe, NM)

St. John's College is a private, liberal arts college with two U.S. campuses: one in Annapolis, Maryland, and one in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Since 1937, it has followed a distinctive curriculum, the Great Books Program, based on discussion of works from the Western canon of philosophical, religious, historical, mathematical, scientific, and literary works. The school also is receptive to early college students.

The Donoho School (Anniston, AL)

Half-way between Atlanta, GA and Birmingham, AL, this day school enrolls approximately 360 students in grades PK-12. In addition to featuring a challenging academic curriculum aimed at above-average students, dual enrollment at Jacksonville State University is available.

Schools & Programs: Math & Science Programs

University of Minnesota Talented Youth Mathematics Program (UMTYMP) (Minneapolis, MN)

UMTYMP provides a challenging alternative for Minnesota’s talented mathematics students in grades 6-12. The highly accelerated courses are specially designed to provide these students with an intense academic experience that will stimulate their mathematical interest and abilities. The program, offered through the University of Minnesota School of Mathematics Center for Educational Programs (MathCEP), is partially supported by an appropriation from the State of Minnesota. Students currently in grades 5-7 are identified and recommended by their schools as eligible for entering UMTYMP at the Algebra level. The University of Minnesota also offers affiliated Summer Enrichment and Saturday Enrichment programs.

Schools & Programs: Public

Cambridge Preparatory Academy, Dual Enrollment -(Federal Way, WA)

The Cambridge Preparatory Academy at Federal Way High School is an an advanced four-year school that allows students to earn college credit while still in high school. Eighth graders approaching ninth are welcome to apply as well. By the time students graduate high school, it is possible to accumulate up to 45 college credits.

Central High School Magnet Career Academy (Louisville, KY)

This school offers career magnets in medicine, law, computer technology, and business, as well as dual credit courses, industry certifications, business/educational partnerships, and work co-op experiences.

Chandler-Gilbert Community College (CGCC) - Dual Enrollment (Chandler, AZ)

Chandler-Gilbert Community College (CGCC) partners with east valley high schools to offer dual enrollment credit for academic and occupational classes. Dual enrollment courses are held on high school campuses and are taught by high school instructors who have met community college hiring qualifications.

The Davidson Academy of Nevada at the University of Nevada, Reno (Reno, NV)

Founded by Bob and Jan Davidson in 2006, The Davidson Academy of Nevada is a unique kind of public school serving profoundly gifted middle and high school students starting at the advanced middle school level. Located on the University of Nevada, Reno campus, the Academy offers personalized learning plans for students allowing them to learn at their own pace and depth, and may include university classes.

University of Maryland (College Park, MD) - Dual Enrollment/Early Admission

UM offers early admission to students within two credits of high school graduation and have the commitment of the high school to award a diploma after successful completion of the freshman year at the University of Maryland. Talented high school seniors also have the opportunity to enroll at the University of Maryland for up to two courses in their concurrent enrollment option.

Venture School (San Ramon, CA)

This independent fully accredited high school study program, located in San Ramon, California, allows students the flexibility to choose their educational plans. Currently about 600 students attend and student's ages range from kindergarten to adults seeking alternative educational plans. The school offers individualized educational plans that follow accreditation requirements while being flexible enough to allow students options such as enrolling in college credits or home study.

Summer Programs: MidWestern Region

Precollege/Dual Enrollment Program - Missouri State University (Springfield, MO)

This program is for high school juniors and seniors who would like to get a head start on college. The Precollege Program provides high-achieving high school students the opportunity to take college courses on campus before graduation. Some of the benefits of the Precollege Program include: receiving college credit while still in high school; getting acquainted with being on a college campus; making connections with college students, faculty and staff; and the opportunity to take courses in subjects not available in some high schools.

Summer Programs: Western Region

University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) - Summer Advanced Gifted Education (SAGE) (Las Vegas, NV)

This academy in southern Nevada, offers summer classes designed especially for Clark County's (greater Las Vegas area) most gifted high school students. Dual enrollment awards the students with three college credits as well as high school enrichment credits. Faculty instructors mentor the students to read the most recent literature, engage in discussions, and independently produce new research.